The ancestor of all living vertebrates may have had gills, a finding that adds to a long-standing debate about the evolutionary history of gills.In jawless animals such as lampreys, gills form from the embryo's innermost layer of cells, or 'endoderm', whereas in jawed vertebrates,
A computer that mimics the way the brain works, and contains both optical and electronic parts, can recognize simple speech three times faster than earlier devices that used only optical components.Reservoir computers use neural networks made of interconnected units that relay signals in recurrent,
Groundwater resources are directly affected by climate variability via precipitation, evapotranspiration and recharge. Analyses of US and India trends reveal that climate-induced pumping indirectly influences groundwater depletion as well.
The twin isotopic signatures of the Moon and Earth are difficult to explain by a single giant impact. Impact simulations suggest that making the Moon by a combination of multiple, smaller moonlet-forming impacts may work better.
The dynamics of polar marine ecosystems are poorly understood. A laser-based space-borne sensor captures annual cycles of phytoplankton biomass in seasonally ice-free polar waters, and provides clues on how growth drives these cycles.
Atmospheric oxygen was maintained at low levels throughout huge swathes of Earth's early history. Estimates of phosphorus availability through time suggest that scavenging from anoxic, iron-rich oceans stabilized this low-oxygen world.
One hallmark of cognitive complexity is the ability to manipulate objects with a specific goal in mind. Such “tool use” at one time was ascribed to humans alone, but then to primates, nex – [Read More]
Ultraluminous x-ray sources (ULXs) are strange objects in other galaxies that cannot be explained by conventional accretion onto stellar-mass objects. This has led to exotic interpretations, – [Read More]
The functional role of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway during maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) remains to be elucidated. Here we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Rnf114, is highly expressed in mouse oocytes and that knockdown of Rnf114 inhibits development beyond the two-cell stage. To study the underlying mechanism, we identify its candidate substrat […]
Yang, Y., Zhou, C., Wang, Y., Liu, W., Liu, C., Wang, L., Liu, Y., Shang, Y., Li, M., Zhou, S., Wang, Y., Zeng, W., Zhou, J., Huo, R., Li, W.
In the mitotic spindle, kinetochore microtubules form k-fibers, whereas overlap or interpolar microtubules form antiparallel arrays containing the cross-linker protein regulator of cytokinesis 1 (PRC1). We have recently shown that an overlap bundle, termed bridging fiber, links outermost sister k-fibers. However, the relationship between overlap bundles and […]
Mitochondrial trafficking is influenced by neuronal activity, but it remains unclear how mitochondrial positioning influences neuronal transmission and plasticity. Here, we use live cell imaging with the genetically encoded presynaptically targeted Ca2+ indicator, SyGCaMP5, to address whether presynaptic Ca2+ responses are altered by mitochondria in synaptic […]
Vaccaro, V., Devine, M. J., Higgs, N. F., Kittler, J. T.
MicroRNA (miRNA)-guided mRNA repression, mediated by the miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC), is an important component of post-transcriptional gene silencing. However, how miRISC identifies the target mRNA in vivo is not well understood. Here, we show that the nucleoporin Nup358 plays an important role in this process. Nup358 localizes to the nuclear p […]
Sahoo, M. R., Gaikwad, S., Khuperkar, D., Ashok, M., Helen, M., Yadav, S. K., Singh, A., Magre, I., Deshmukh, P., Dhanvijay, S., Sahoo, P. K., Ramtirtha, Y., Madhusudhan, M. S., Gayathri, P., Seshadri, V., Joseph, J.
We present a special issue highlighting considerations and recent developments in noninvasive techniques that improve our understanding of neural measurements in humans, bridging the gap between human and animal research in neuroscience.
The validity of conclusions drawn from functional MRI research has been questioned for some time now. Nature Neuroscience and Nature Communications are committed to working with neuroimaging researchers to improve the robustness and reproducibility of their work.
Responding to widespread concerns about reproducibility, the Organization for Human Brain Mapping created a working group to identify best practices in data analysis, results reporting and data sharing to promote open and reproducible research in neuroimaging. We describe the challenges of open research and the barriers the field faces.
A revolution is underway in cognitive neuroscience, where tools and techniques from computer science and the tech industry are helping to extract more meaningful cognitive signals from noisy and increasingly large fMRI datasets. In this paper, the authors review the cutting edge of such computational analyses and discuss future opportunities and challenges.
Today the dingo has been crowned the World’s Favourite Unloved Species, after two weeks of voting and some fierce competition. Here Bret Charman discusses his experiences with photographing this misunderstood yet beautiful species. The world’s wild dog species, for the most part, are on a downward spiral – none more so than the iconic dingo […]
#LoveSpecies nominee: helmeted hornbill Nominated by: World Land Trust Why do you love it? The fierce appearance of the world’s largest hornbill, with a battering ram of solid keratin fixed to their face, suits its medieval mating rituals. The males clash mid-air in head-to-head combat (an impressive display called aerial jousting) to win access to fruiting […]
#LoveSpecies nominee: Galapagos giant tortoise Nominated by: Ecology Project International Why do you love it? The Galapagos giant tortoise has had such an impressive impact on history, science, and its ecosystem that it’s sure to win over hearts. Endemic to the Galapagos Islands off the coast of Ecuador, this tortoise is one of only two distinct […]
#LoveSpecies nominee: okapi Nominated by: Tusk Task Force Why do you love it? Even though the okapi resembles the striped markings of a zebra on its behind, it is actually closely related to their tall cousins, the giraffe. Due to their common remarkable DNA, the okapi and the giraffe are the only living members of the family, […]